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A verdade sobre os métodos

Método é o conjunto das actividades sistemáticas e racionais que, com maior segurança, permite alcançar o objectivo – conhecimentos válidos e verdadeiros, traçando o caminho a ser seguido, detectando erros e auxiliando as decisões (Lakatos, Eva Maria e Marconi 2003).

Neste artigo, vou apresentar algumas revelações sobre os métodos que me têm ajudado no processo de tomada de decisões, seja no âmbito académico  seja no profissional, mas que nunca me foram contadas ou ensinados antes.

Apesar de os métodos serem transversais a todas as áreas da vida, a abordagem vai cingir-se aos métodos científicos. Até ao final deste artigo, a sua visão sobre os métodos vai mudar, e saberá descobrir o melhor para a sua pesquisa.

Lakatos e Marconi deram-nos um conceito de método que, se quiséssemos sintetizar, diríamos apenas que o Método é o caminho a ser seguido para se alcançar um determinado objectivo. O método permite-nos detectar, antecipadamente, os erros e auxilia o pesquisador nas decisões sobre a certeza dos resultados da pesquisa. 

curso de consultoria fiscal

 

Uma das coisas que nunca me foi contada é que existe uma “árvore genealógica” dos métodos. Em uma pesquisa, podemos ter métodos de abordagem (que nos indicam como estruturar e expor o conteúdo no trabalho), Métodos de Análise (que nos indicam o paradigma de análise correcto para o conteúdo que se quer tratar) e Métodos de procedimentos (que nos indicam o caminho a seguir para apresentar / representar o resultado da pesquisa).

Vou dar um exemplo para auxiliar a sua compreensão:  João é residente no bairro da Fubu, chega sempre tarde ao serviço, alegando dificuldade de táxi. Será a dificuldade de táxi a razão do atraso de João? Pergunta o patrão ao Nelson, que é o Chefe da área de pesquisa.

Para se apurar os dados com cientificidade, o Nelson deverá decidir se utiliza o método dedutivo, o indutivo, o hipotético-dedutivo ou o dialéctico para saber se vai começar a estudar primeiro o João para depois generalizar para todos os funcionários dessa empresa residentes no bairro da Fubu ou se vai estudar os habitantes do bairro da Fubu para, depois, avaliar a conduta ou a razão dos atrasos do João. Aqui, estaríamos a falar dos métodos de abordagem.

Nelson, também, deve decidir se vai avaliar os dados qualitativos, tais como o comportamento do João, a disciplina, boas maneiras, ética ou se vai avaliar a quantidade de horas produzidas, dias de atraso, consequências económicas que os atrasos de João provocaram à empresa (Métodos de análise).

O Nelson deverá decidir, igualmente, o método de representação e análise desses dados. Vai fazer uma representação comparativa em relação aos outros funcionários, também, residentes na Fubu? Vai optar por uma representação estatística da quantidade de vezes que João chegou tarde ao longo da semana? Ou vai centrar-se apenas na trajectória histórica do João e nas entrevistas feitas a ele e aos seus colegas? (Métodos de procedimento).

O que nunca me foi contado é que, para se fazer uma pesquisa, era necessário definir os métodos de acordo com esta esquematização: métodos de abordagem, métodos de análise e métodos de procedimentos.

E mais, um trabalho é mutilado se falhar na definição de um desses métodos, aliás, a validação dos resultados de uma investigação passa, exactamente, por apurar os métodos utilizados e se eles foram explorados adequadamente.

Segundo Carlos GIL (2008), “para que um conhecimento possa ser considerado científico, torna-se necessário identificar as operações mentais e técnicas que possibilitam a sua verificação”. Esse pensamento é ainda actual.

Vale ainda referenciar que, em uma mesma investigação, podemos optar por usar o método indutivo e dedutivo simultaneamente. Mas, este é outro assunto que abordarei no próximo trabalho que lhe vou apresentar. Esta, também, é uma verdade que nunca ninguém me contou.

Deodato Francisco

Graduado em Metodologia de Investigação Científica e Pesquisa Aplicada pela Universidade Agostinho Neto (ANGOLA) e em Metodologia Investigação Científica e Tutoria para o ensino superior pelo Instituto Superior de Relaciones Internacionales Raul Roa Garcia (CUBA).

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